- Qira'at refers to the various manners of reciting the Qur'an.
- Each qiraa'a has its own rules of tajweed.
- In Murattal, it is not necessary to emphasize every vowel in clarity as it is in Mujawwad.
- Each qira'at is named after the Qari who was famous in reciting in that manner.
- There are 10 authentic Qira'at. For a qira'at to be authentic there are very detailed rules.
Here are the ten Qira'at with their famous Qaaris:
1. Naafi' Al-Madanee. (Madinah)
Imam Malik recited in this manner. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal often recited in this manner.
The 2 Qaris who preserved this recitation are Qaloon and Warsh.
2. Ibn Katheer al-Makee. (Makkah)
Imam Shafi recited in this manner.
The 2 Qaris who preserved this recitation are Al-Buzzee and Qumbul.
3. Abu Amr al-Basri (Basra)
The 2 Qaris who preserved this recitation are Ad-Doori and As-Soosee.
4. Ibn Aamir ash-Shami (Syria)
The 2 Qaris who preserved this recitation are Hishaam and Ibn Thakwan.
5. Asim al-Kufi (Koofah)
Imaam Abu Hanifa recited in this manner. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal often recited in this manner.
The 2 Qaris who prserved this recitation are Shuba and Hafs
6. Hamzah Al-Kufi (Koofah)
The 2 Qaris who preserved this recitation are Khalaf (who also has his own Qira'at #10) and Khallaad.
The 2 Qaris who preserved this recitation are Al-Layth and ad-Doori (same one as before).
8. Abu Ja'far Al-Madanee (Madinah)
The two Qaris who preserved this recitation are Isa and Sulayman.
9. Yaqub ibn Al-Basri (Basra)
Imam Bukhari recited in this manner.
The 2 Qaris who preserved this recitation are Ruways and Rooh.
10. Khalaf (same one who preserved Hamzah's recitation, but this is his own method of reciation)
The 2 Qaris who preserved this reciation are Ishaq and Idris.
Today, 95% of the world recites Hafs an Asim, 3% Warsh an Naafi, 7% Qaloon an-Naafi, 3% Ad-Doori an Abu Amr and 1% Ibn 'Aamir.
Then you also have the 7 types of Ahruf (dialects/modes).
Here's summat on the 7 Ahruuf (modes/dialects):
The Qur'an was revealed in seven ahruf, as is proved in many mutawaatir ahadith. This was because different tribes pronounced and spelled words differently. The forms matched the dialects of following seven tribes:
The revelation of the Qur'an in seven different ahruuf made its recitation and memorization much easier for the various tribes. At the same time the Qur'an challenged them to produce a surah like it in their own dialect so that they would not complain about the incomprehensibility.
Regarding whether or not these ahruuf have been preserved, there are three opinions; the strongest being that of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ash-Shatibee, Ar-Raazi, Ibn Katheer and Ibn Al-Jazaree and many others. They say that when Uthman (radhi Allahu 'anhum) was compiling the Qur'aan, he had Zaib ibn Thabit record it without the vowelation and consonants to accomodate the different Ahruuf. At some points where the ahruuf differed greatly, they recorded it according to the Quraysh dialect. There are 4 benefits which show the Wisdom of Allah (swt) revealing the Qur'aan in seven ahruuf:
1. To facilitate the memorization of the Qur'aan.
The arabs did not all speak arabic in the same way. The ahruuf eased the memorization and was significant in the preservation of the Qur'aan.
2. To prove the miraculous nature of the Qur'aan.
For despite all the differences, the meaning of the Ahruuf did not contradict one another, but rather were complimentary.
3. To prove the truthfulness of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), for despite the fact that he was illiterate, the revelation of the Qur'aan occured in different tribal dialects and different words, all of which consisted of the most fluent and eloquent speech of his time.
4. To honour the ummah of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and show its superiority over all other nations.
Wallahu Ta'ala A'lam!