radhiAllahuanhaThe Emigrant

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) married Sawdah (may Allah be pleased with her) after the death of his wife Khadeejah. This lent further helping and support to young Fatimah.

After the death of the Prophet's uncle Aboo Taalib and his wife Khadeejah, the onslaught and persecution against the Prophet and his Companions intensified. The Pledge of ‘Aqabah took place, followed by migration of the Muslims to Madeenah, the abode of the Ansaar - the protectors of Islaam. Fatimah migrated with her sisters, Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthoom, and her step-mother, the Mother of the Faithful, Sawdah bint Zam’ah (may Allah be pleased with them).

During the actual hijrah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) from Makkah to Madinah his family did not accompany him. Rather, he took Aboo Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) as his companion and left his family in Makkah, as they were to join him later on. In fact, many Muslim women who did not migrate with their husbands and fathers, such as members of Abu Bakr’s household (i.e. his wife, Umm Rooman and his daughters: ‘Aa’ishah, whom the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) had proposed marriage to before his migration, and Asmaa’.) While he was away from them, they were seriously worried for him. They only felt peace of mind when they heard of his safe arrival at Madeenah.

One night, Zayd ibn Haarithah knocked the door of the Prophet’s household while they were still in Makkah. He was sent by the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) to bring them to Madeenah. They became jubilated and prepared themselves for the journey. None of the polytheists knew of Zayd’s arrival in Makkah. Zayd took them out of Makkah under the dark cover of the night, putting his trust in Allah and heading for the blessed city of Madeenah, with the blessed family of the Prophet (peace be upon him).

At that time, Fatimah was an eighteen-year old young lady, full of energy and burning with passion. Her main preoccupation was to see the face of her beloved father and hear his sweet recitation and words. Keeping these thoughts in mind, she would not mind the arduous journey and the hardships which came with it. Although she did want time to swiftly pass, as she was eager to arrive at Madeenah even if that risked her life.

Zayd would halt at appropriate places for them to rest. Fatimah was so eager to swiftly reach the long-awaited Madinah that she was hesitant to stop. Yet she obeyed her sisters, Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthoom, aswell as the mother of the faithful, Sawdah.

Arrival of the convoy

The convoy entered the city of Madeenah through one of its sections. Fatimah, out of her keenness, was finding her camel too slow. She wished she could just leap out of her hawdaj (camel litter), and into the arms of her loving, and much missed, father. (Dear reader, if you feel that I may have given free rein to my imaginations, then i do so only out of my love for the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his family.)

And they met!

The eyes spoke to each other, instead of the tongues; and the tears were tears of happiness. It is known that tears actually give better expression to sincere feelings, rather than just words from the tongue.

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) received them honourably, embraced them with his loving heart and thanked Zayd for the great task that he had accomplished.

With this blessed journey, Fatimah bid farewell to Makkah, her beloved city that witnessed her childhood and youth age for she was then an eighteen-year old young lady. After that, she did not set her eyes on Makkah until the 8th year of Hijrah - the day of the conquest of Makkah.

‘Ali and Fatimah

After thepurty_flower_400 Prophet’s marriage to ‘Aa'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her), prominent Companions of the Messenger (peace be upon him) came forward asking for the hand of his daughter Fatimah.

Aboo Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) and then ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) successively asked for Fatimah’s hand in marriage. But the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) gently and graciously asked both of them to excuse him for not being able grant their request. ‘Umar then suggested to ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) to come forward and win the honor of being the Prophet’s son-in-law.

'Ali asked himself:

“Do you think that the Messenger of Allah will accept your proposal after he had refused the proposals of his two Companions, Aboo Bakr and ‘Umar?!”

When he finally was going to ask, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) gently looked at him with a smiling face and then asked him, “What is the matter, son of Aboo Taalib?”

'Ali replied in a very low voice, due to extreme shyness,

“I am asking for the hand of Fatimah, the daughter of Allah’s Messenger in marriage.”

The Prophet (peace be upon him) responded with a bright face saying, “Welcome!”

'Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) couldn’t believe his ears! When people began asking him what happened, he told them:

“I spoke to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) about the matter and he said, ‘Welcome!’”

On the following day, ‘Ali went to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and repeated the same request, just to confirm that what his ears had heard was infact true.

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) asked him whether he had anything to give for the dowry. He answered in the negative. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) then asked him, “Where is your khatami (armoured plate) that I gave to you?” He replied that it was still with him.

He went and brought it; the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) then asked him to sell it so that he could get the bride prepared with its price.

‘Uthman bought the armour plate from him for four hundred and seventy dirhams. ‘Ali in turn gave the money to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him).

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) gave part of the money to Bilal to buy some perfume and gave the rest to Umm Salamah to buy things that the bride might need.

He looked at ‘Anas, his helper, and told him, “Go and call Aboo Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, Talhah, Zubayr and a number of the Ansaar.”

He then went in to inform his daughter that ‘Ali had come forward to ask for her hand in marriage. Fatimah shyly kept silent, and that was the sign of acceptance.

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) came out and found the elder Companions present. He then addressed them.

"All praise is due to Allah, Who is praised for His blessings, worshipped by His might and obeyed by His authority. He is the only Protector against His own punishment, and the only One Whose command is implemented in the heaven and in the earth. He created the creature with His power and gave them glory through the adherence to His religion. He honoured them by His Messenger Muhammad (peace be upon him).

Indeed, Allah has made the relationship of marriage the means of maintaining human progeny. He connects, through marriage, the kinship and makes joining the ties of kinship obligatory upon mankind. Allah says:

{And it is He Who has created man from water, and has appointed for him kindred by blood, and kindred by marriage. And your Lord is Ever All-Powerful to do what He wills.} (Qur’an 25:54)

And for every matter there is a Decree. Allah blots out what He wills and confirms what He wills. And with Him is the Mother of the Book.

Indeed, Allah has commanded me to give Fatimah in marriage to ‘Ali, and I take you as witnesses that I have done so upon a bridal gift of four hundred dirhams, if ‘Ali agrees to that.

This is the established Sunnah and an obligation. May Allah join them together in peace and make their children gateways of mercy, treasures of wisdom and source of security for the Ummah.

This is what I have to say and beseech (Allah) to forgive me and you.”

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) then ordered that a tray of dates be presented to the guests, and he told them to pass it around.

Suddenly, ‘Ali appeared to them. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) smiled and told him, "‘Ali, Allah commanded me to give Fatimah to you in marriage. And I have done so upon four hundred dirhams.”

‘Ali said,

“I agree, Messenger of Allah.”

Then ‘Ali prostrated in gratitude to Allah. When he raised his head the Messenger of Allah addressed him,

“May Allah bless you and bless your efforts. May He bring out of you many pleasant offspring.”

The invocation was accepted, for it was an invocation of a Prophet, rather an invocation of the leaders of the Messengers of Allah.

That was the marriage of ’Ali and Fatimah, which was witnessed by a group of eminent Companions.

A night blessed by Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him)

moondarknightOn the night of Fatimah and ‘Ali’s marriage, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) asked Umm Salamah to take the bride to ‘Ali’s house and to wait for him there.

When the Messenger of Allah had performed the ‘Isha prayer, he went to ‘Ali’s house. When he arrived there, he asked for water, made ablution and made the following supplication:

“O Allah! Bless them and bless their offspring.”

He then advised his daughter to honour her husband. He also advised ‘Ali with the following words:

“’Ali, do not get angry, and when you get angry sit down. Remember Allah’s power over the servants and His tolerance of their sins. If you are advised to fear Allah, abandon your anger and go back to deliberation.”

All the Muslims were happy with Fatimah’s marriage to ‘Ali. It was reported that Hamzah bought two rams which he slaughtered and distribute their meat to the inhabitants of Madeenah.

‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him)

In order to fully understand Fatimah’s marriage to ‘Ali, we would like to tell the readers something about ‘Ali –though he was popularly known to all.

‘Ali was the son of Abu Talib, the Prophet’s uncle. His mother was Fatimah bint ‘Asad, the first Hashimite woman born to a Hashimite man.

‘Ali is one of the ten Companions who were given the glad tidings of Paradise, the first young boy to accept Islaam and one of the six members of the Shooraa (advisory) Council.

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said regarding him, “He who I regard a friend is also a friend of ‘Ali. O Allah! Treat as a friend whoever regards ‘Ali a friend and treat as enemy whoever regards him an enemy.”

He also told him, “None loves you but a believer and none hates you but a hypocrite.”

Abu Nu’aym (the biographist) introduced him as follows:

“He is the leader of the people, ardent follower of the Prophet and the Creator’s beloved. He is the door of knowledge and sciences, the standard of the rightly-guided, light for the obedient, friend of the righteous and the leader of the just rulers. He was among the earliest ones to respond to the call of Islaam, the strongest of them in justice and certainty, the greatest of them in intelligence and the fullest of them in knowledge. He is the adornment of the knowledgeable and the model of the pious.

He taught the realities of Tawheed. He had an intelligent mind, the inquisitive tongue, a comprehending ear and fulfilled the covenant.

He repelled the perfidious, subdued the unjust and defeated the apostate.”

‘Ali was born ten years before the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was commissioned a Prophet. He grew up in his house, so his mental faculties responded to the reality of Prophethood and its greatness, and he learnt from the Prophet (peace be upon him) truthfulness in words, strong heart and eloquence. He thus took after the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) in his lofty and sublime qualities.

When the noble Prophet was commissioned, ‘Ali was among the first persons to benefit from this divine light. He was very happy with this gracious call, and he was the first Muslim to pray with the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him).

Since the beginning of Prophetic mission, signs of wisdom started to manifest in the personality of ‘Ali. He played a heroic role on the day of the Prophet’s migration to Madeenah. He was also among the frontline fighters in the way of Allah, holding the standard in every battle.

On the day of the Battle of Badr, he played an extremely laudable role. He did the same during the Battle of Uhud. In the Battle of Khandaq (the Trench), he killed the hero of the polytheists, ‘Umar ibn Wudd al-‘Amiri. ‘Ali was the hero of the war in the Battle of Khaybar.

He was rightly titled, ‘Judge of the Ummah’ and ‘Hero of Islaam’.

Fatimah, on her part, was an exemplary wife. She had to be because she had the honour of being the daughter of Muhammad, whom Allah praised in the glorious Qur’an with the following words: {And verily, you [0’ Muhammad] are on an exalted standard of character.}

She also had the honour of being the daughter of the leader of all women, Khadeejah bint Khuwaylid.

Fatimah was content with the financial situation of ‘Ali, who was very poor. She lived with him in protection of the honour of her husband and with patience, seeking the reward of her Lord. She would perform the household chores and carry out her obligations as a responsible mother. She was always pleased with little food and drink. And not only that, she was also satisfied with tasteless food.

Although, it did happen that when she was still quite young, in a moment of difficulty she complained to her husband about the difficulties she had to face in household chores. The complaint was not a show of displeasure or discontent. It was only to express her feelings. ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) told her to go to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and explain her situation to him so that he may provide her with help and assistance by providing her with a house-maid.

quran.2The Qur’an and the Cure

Fatimah went to her father and complained to him of her difficult and hard situation. She showed her palms to which, which had cracked due to excessive hand-milling.

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), who loved her so dearly, looked towards her with great affection. He placed his noble hands on her shoulder. He then taught her to repeatedly read the Soorahs al-Ikhlas, al-Falaq and an-Naas and explained to her that they indeed were of the best help.

Fatimah returned home with this great provision from the Messenger of Allah and greater confidence in Allah that He would gave her immense reward for her patience.

A poor man, an orphan and a captive

Some scholars of Tafseer explain to us the reason behind the revelation of the following verse:

{And they give food, in spite of their love for it [or for the love of Him], to the Miskeen [the poor], the orphan, and the captive [saying], “We feed you seeking Allah’s Countenance only. We wish from you nor thanks.”} (Qur’an 76: 8-9)

They say, ‘Ali and Fatimah were observing fast one day and to break their fast they had prepared a kind of food that contained some butter.

When the sun set, they sat down in order to break their fast. They heard a knock on their door. ‘Ali stood up and asked, ‘Who is it?’ A voice answered,

‘A hungry poor man.’

‘Ali went back inside his home and brought their Iftaar food in a bag and gave it to the poor man. He inturn thanked and supplicated for him. 'Ali and Fatimah then had to break their fast on only bread and water.

The following day, at the same time again, when ‘Ali and his wife Fatimah were about to open their fast, there was a knock on the door. ‘Ali stood up and asked, "Who is it?” A voice came from outside,

"An orphan who is displaced and starving.”

‘Ali did as he did the day before; he carried their food in a bag to that orphan. He and his wife again broke their fast with bread and water, without feeling any inconvenience or displeasure.

The incident repeated itself on the third day, but this day the man knocking answered that he was a captive. ‘Ali gave him the food they were about to have and with which he and his wife were going to break their fast with. And as they had done the two previous days, they broke their fast on only bread and water.

Do you think that the person who knocked the door on those three days was the same person, or different persons; a poor man, an orphan and a captive? Narrations of the scholars of Tafseer indicate that the knocker was Angel Gabriel who came to test the faith and patience of ’Ali and Fatimah!

For, after that, Jibreel came to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and informed him of the incidence. He gave him good tiding that ‘Ali and Fatimah would have a carriage of silver in Paradise as a suitable reward.

Blessed offspring

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “Allah created the progeny of every Prophet from his own self, but created my progeny from 'Ali.”

A year after ‘Ali and Fatimah’s marriage, the Prophet (peace be upon him) was blessed with his first grandson from Fatimah. He was named al-Hasan and the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was jubilant. He himself performed the Tahneek for him with a date, slaughtered a sacrifice and named him. After Hasan, Husayn, father of the martyrs and the hero of the war of Karbala, was born.

After sometime, Fatimah also gave birth to another boy named Muhsin, but he died very young. Then Allah blessed this noble household with the flower of Banoo Haashim, Zaynab.

Zaynab was married to her exceptionally generous cousin, ’Abdullah ibn Ja’far. She witnessed the Karbala massacre of 60 A.H. with all its horrible phases. She played a great role in preserving the progeny of al-Husayn and the Prophet’s descendants.

Fatimah was blessed with another flower, named after her aunt Umm Kulthoom, who was to be later married to ‘Umar while he was the commander of the believers. She gave birth to Zayd and Ruqayyah.

The Prophet’s Household

When the following noble verse was revealed:

{... Allah wishes only to remove ar-Rijs [evil deeds and sins] from you, O members of the family [of the Prophet] and to purify you with a thorough purification.} (Qur’an 33:33)

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was with Umm Salamah when he called ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn and covered them with a garment. He then said:

“O Allah, these are members of my household and my special ones. O Allah, remove from them the impurity of sins and give them an extensive, thorough purification.” He said this three times.

He then said: “O Allah, give Your blessings and favours to the family of Muhammad as You have done for the family of Ibraheem. Indeed, You are Praiseworthy and Honourable.”

Prophet’s love for Fatimah

Fatimah enjoyed the love of her father. He would shower great affection and compassion on her, for she was his only daughter alive as his other daughters had died. Therefore, she deserved great love, favour and joy.

In spite of this great love, the Messenger of Allah would explain that good deeds and piety were indispensable. One day, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) stood up and proclaimed:

“O people of Quraysh! Buy (i.e. save) yourselves (from the Hellfire) as I cannot save you from Allah’s Punishment; O Bani ‘Abd Manaf! I cannot save you from Allah’s punishment, O Safiyah bint ‘Abdul-Muttalib! I cannot save you from Allah’s Punishment, O Fatimah bint Muhammad! Ask me anything from my wealth, but I cannot save you from Allah’s Punishments.”

On another occasion, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) made it clear that his love for his beloved daughter could not prevent him from implementing Allah’s ordained punishment among the people.

It is reported in the books of Seerah that a Qurayshi woman committed theft. Members of her family came to Usaamah ibn Zayd, the Prophet’s favourite and the son of his favourite, requesting him to intercede with the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) on behalf of the woman who committed theft.

Usaamah went to Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) requesting him not to cut the hands of that woman. The Prophet (peace be upon him) replied angrily, “Usamah! Are you interceding concerning one of His ordained punishment?!”

He then rose up and addressed the people. After he had praised Allah, as He is worthy, then he said:

“People! The nations before you were destroyed because if a noble person committed theft they would leave him, but if a weak person among them committed theft, they used to inflict the legal punishment on him. By Allah, if Fatimah, the daughter of    Muhammad, committed theft, I will cut off her hand!”

This was despite the great love the Prophet (peace be upon him) had for is daughter. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) expressed his love for his dear daughter one day when he said to her, “Indeed Allah is pleased with your pleasure and He is angered if you are angry.”

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) also once said: “The best women from among mankind are four: Maryam, Aasiyah, Khadeejah and Fatimah.”

Abu Tha’labah al-Khushani said:

“Whenever the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) came back from a journey or war he would first visit the masjid, in which he would pray two rak’ahs. He would then visit his daughter, Fatimah. And finally, he would visit his wives.”

Fatimah: A part of me

I have mentioned afore that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Fatimah is a part of me. Whatever hurts her hurts me!”

This statement from the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was to underline the loving status she occupied in his heart. In fact, the reason why the Prophet (peace be upon him) said this was because once ‘Ali wanted to marry another wife and Fatimah came to her father crying and complaining. She told him what her husband, ‘Ali, wanted to do.

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) set her mind at rest. He then depicted to ‘Ali how he felt by saying, “Fatimah is a part of me. Whatever hurts her hurts me!”

‘Ali understood the Prophet’s intention and kept that to himself. He then examined himself, reviewed his stand with Fatimah, the Prophet’s daughter, and cast a retrospective look towards the burdens of life which she had carried with him, her patience upon difficulties, her love and selflessness, and her sincere faith.

He then decided to withdraw from taking another wife while Fatimah was still with him. 'Ali was a gallant, earnestly enthusiastic Muslim and a truthful believer. How could he then hurt the dearest person to him and the noblest creature in the sight of Allah?!

It was reported that ‘Ali never married any other woman other than Fatimah while she was alive. It was only after her death that he married other women and had many more children.

Miswar ibn Makhramah narrated that he heard the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) say on the pulpit, ‘Fatimah is a part of me, whoever hurts her hurts me!”

Exemplary Role-Model for all Women

Fatimah has laid down for us an exceptional example in her marital life, with her neighbours and relatives and in her role as a mother. She gave her children proper Islamic education, even though she had faced a very difficult time in completing her house-chores.

At the same time she was keen at doing deeds that could make her attain Allah’s pleasure by obeying Him and His Messenger (peace be upon him). She performed her prayers at their prescribed times. She spent a great part of her efforts and wealth in the way of Allah. She was always truthful in her words and emulated the exemplary qualities of her father.

Thus, she became a righteous model for any Muslim woman, a woman who was a knowledgeable struggler in the way of Allah.

‘Aa'ishah (may Allah  be pleased with her) said,

“I have never seen anyone who was more like the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), in speech and walk, than Fatimah.”

Whenever Fatimah visited her father, he would hold her hand, sit her beside himself and welcome her in the most beautiful manner.